Тест с ответами Синергии «Иностранный язык в сфере юриспруденции» Итоговый компетентностный

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Susan is an Asian-American. She wanted to continue her studies at a local public college but her application was rejected. Susan has grounds to suppose that it was because of her ethnic origin. She filed suit against the college.

What law is applied in such a case?

The distinction between Public and Private Law is a purely academic debate, nevertheless, it also affects legal practice. There are areas of law, which may not fit into distinction of Public or Private Law. Study the following case:

An employment inspector investigates workplace safety, checking all the equipment. The inspector investigates workplace incidents, and conducts workplace inspections to evaluate compliance.

Decide whether it falls into the category of Public or Private law.

Mary had therapy sessions. She found out that the psychologist sent copies of her case notes to the insurance carrier responsible for reimbursement and that therapist should not have revealed this information. Client reported psychologist to the APA Ethics Committee for violating confidentiality principles. Psychologist explained to Ethics Committee that any client understands that their confidentiality may be breached when using an insurance company for third-party reimbursement due to administrative and professional peer review. Nonetheless, psychologist never informed client of this risk before therapy began, rather, he assumed client “must understand” the protocol.

Think of the Ethics Committee adjudication.

Analyze the following case:

Therapist sent a third billing notice to a slow-to- pay client’s fax machine in her office but client did not report to work that day. The bill was titled “psychological services rendered” and handwritten in large print was “Third Notice – OVERDUE!!” with client’s name. This notice sat in an open access mail tray of the busy office all day.

Was is reasonable? Is it allowed to send private material in such a manner?

Rachel buys a commercial welding machine for her building business. A few weeks later, it breaks down.

Can Rachel get a remedy from the store he bought it from?

Susan buys a cup of coffee and accidentally spills it at Kate’s bar.

What must Kate do to fix the problem?

You are a lawyer. In Liza’s electronics shop in the Russia Federation Ivan buys an expensive TV-set. Three weeks after the 12-month manufacturer’s warranty expires, the TV-set stops working.

Must Liza give Ivan a remedy?

Judy owns a clothing retail store. One of her customers returns a T-shirt because it doesn’t fit her.

Does Judy have to give her customer a different size or a refund?


The idea of written laws first appears in … culture

We can find he expression “An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth” in the …

… law deals with marriage and divorce

A number of principles of a formal and procedural character, addressing the way in which a community is governed comprises …

The main spheres of law are …

… is classified as private law

The body of rules, doctrines, and practices that govern the operation of political communities is …

Criminal law prosecutes activities which are …

A person who hears a case at court is called a …

The legal framework within which public administration is carried out is … law

A system of treaties and agreements between nations that governs how nations interact with other nations, citizens of other nations, and businesses of other nations is … law

Most rules of law have developed from the … that are known as a settled and accepted way of behavior in the defined circumstances

A legal … is the legal condition of a person who is required or forbidden by the law to perform an act

… is a scheme of social control that is represented by a combination of relations between several things

The law creates a … system including the system of the courts for mitigating controversies

An area of United States law that involves agreements between people, businesses, and groups is … law

Correlate the branch of law with regulated legal relationship:

Match the given expressions with the definitions:

Arrange the following areas of law chronologically according to their appearance:

Arrange the sources of law according to their importance (start with the least important):

… is usually connected with what is believed to be right or wrong, with human moral principles or values

Law creates not only …, but also justifications for people to behave in a certain way (lawful behaviour)

It is not correct that … belongs to terminal values

The forms of laws are …

The law operates in the … environment

… is the area of law that deals with agreements between people, businesses, and groups

Laws are binding for the members of the society because …

The laws are enforced according to their acceptance by …

… laws are statutory instruments made by local governments to regulate a broad range of issues within their communities

… is the estimated or appraised worth of any object or property, calculated in money

… is a comprehensive legal term that describes the condition of being actually or potentially subject to a legal obligation

… is the condition of being free of restraints, especially the ability to act without control or interference by another or by circumstance

… is firm adherence to a code of especially moral or artistic values

… values are usually mutual for different communities and could be described using the following characteristics – socially acceptable, right and wrong

… is concerned with human actions, and the choice of those actions, and evaluates those actions, and the values that underlie them

Although, there are values accepted by the whole community, there are also … values that may be specific

Match the given expressions with the definitions:

Attribute the following terms to the appropriate groups:

Arrange the needs according to Dr. Abraham Maslow starting with the highest ones:

Arrange the values according to the theory of values by Max Scheler starting from the basic values:

… are responsible for ensuring product safety and to control the protection of human rights

The functions of Rospotrebnadzor’s officials are to … (choose 2 correct answers)

If a warranty period is established for the goods, the buyer has the right to make claims related to the short delivery of the goods within …

Apart from Rospotrebnadzor, protection of … rights in Russia is also conducted by municipal authorities that review applications from consumers, give necessary consultations and apply to courts to protect consumers

There are voluntary … of consumers (generally formed as non-commercial enterprises) who also protect consumers

Rospotrebnadzor inspects products (works, services) as being in conformity with obligatory … ensuring safety towards consumers and environment as well as preventing harm and damages thereto

… and supervision of consumer protection by Rospotrebnadzor acting pursuant to its Regulations approved by Resolution of the Russian Government

The role of voluntary associations of consumers is to …

Under the Russian law, the state control and … of consumer protection as well as sanitary and epidemiological safety of the population is conducted by the Russian Federal Consumer Rights Protection and Human Health Control Service (Rospotrebnadzor)

In Russia rather than having a single product liability …, the relevant rules are scattered among various laws

The … Code and the Consumer Protection Law contain a number of provisions by which manufacturers may incur liability for loss or damage suffered by the consumers of their products

Strict liability is applied regardless of whether or not contractual relations exist. The test for whether ‘… information’ was supplied to a consumer is quite uncertain

Code of … Offences establishes liability for certain offences committed against a consumer, such as: selling goods and rendering works or services of improper quality

… is an organisation, regardless of the organisational-and-legal form thereof, or an individual businessman engaged in importing commodities for their subsequent sale

Product … is the ability of a product to be safe for intended use, as determined when evaluated against a set of established rules

Consumer … laws are designed to prevent businesses from engaging in fraud or unfair practices, to protect individuals from scam artists, and identity thieves and crooks

Match the words with their synonyms:

Match the words with their synonyms:

Arrange the actions according to the order in which the goods are returned:

Arrange the following legal acts chronologically:

The United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection, that were adopted in 1985 and revised in 1999, propose a list of objectives described as “legitimate …”

It is not correct that … is included in the guidelines for Consumer protection

A turning point in the Consumer Protection Legislation was the … Treaty, signed on February 7, 1992 and ratified by Law no. 454 of November 3, 1992 that transformed the European Community in European Union

A prominent growth in the individual associations took place in Europe in …

The purpose of a green paper of the European Commission of 2001 was …

The EU legislation provides for some consumer protection or regulates the power of national authorities to introduce consumer protection …

Consumer protection in the American legislation is implemented through …

Laws currently in force in England include …

The Consumer Code in Italy came into force on 23 October 2005 and has been a … body of law for the protection of consumer rights

The company that makes a particular brand of sneakers is an example of the … of the sneakers

… measures are referred to as acts or, in the case of bicameral legislatures, joint or concurrent resolutions of both houses

… is overall quality or character, that helps you to attract new customers and build customer loyalty

The individual associations remained weak until, in 1989, was created the … Consumers and Users Association which was attended by nine associations

The … Directive is the foundational legal framework for online services in the EU

A branch of the law that governs the horizontal relationships among private parties is … law

… flaw in goods (works, services) means a flaw that it is impossible to eliminate or a flaw which cannot be eliminated without spending an in commensurate outlays or time or which occurs repeatedly or which emerges again after it has been eliminated or other similar flaws

Put the steps of the consumer decision making process in the appropriate order:

Arrange the following acts chronologically:

Match the words with the synonyms:

Match the given countries to the corresponding law systems:

The “cooling off” period available to consumers who change their minds about goods they’ve bought from a retailer in Russia takes …

Historically, under the common law doctrine of caveat emptor, … had very little protection from misleading sales, requiring consumers to inspect all transactions themselves

The rights and responsibilities of consumers, legal provisions and mechanism for settlement of consumer grievances are called … protection

Consumer protection laws safeguard … of goods and services against defective products and deceptive, fraudulent business practices

The agency responsible for inspecting complaints of scams and fraud against businesses is …

Consumer protection laws and actions had a rapid growth in the …

Reading … reviews can tell you more about a company or product

If you buy something online and it is … or not as advertised or not fit for purpose you will have exactly the same rights as if you bought it in a shop.

The earliest Consumer Protection law was …

The … and anti-monopoly laws passed both at the close of the 19th century, as well as the early years of the 20th century disallowed for the commercial monopolization of the commercial market for the first time in conjunction with recorded and mandated legislature within the United States

Consumer Protection within the computer age prevents from the defrauding of consumers engaging within the … marketplace upon regulating the methods and activities of electronic commerce and transactions

Consumer Protection Laws specific to … commerce provides the regulation and oversight of the integrity of products and services offered within a virtual marketplace

The Regulation on Consumer Protection Cooperation (CPC) is applicable in the … Economic Area

The aim of the … is to share information about cross-border commercial activities that may affect consumer interests, and to encourage international cooperation among law enforcement agencies

The Federal Trade Commission’s mission is to protect consumers and promote …

The Federal Trade … works with foreign competition and consumer protection authority, and cooperates with foreign authorities on enforcement and policy matters through formal and informal agreements

The Product Liability … of 1985 was the first consumer protection measure

Consumers face high cost and time barriers to taking action against a business, resulting in low usage of consumer …

Arrange the following consumer acts chronologically:

Match the words with the synonyms:

Antique shop owner Mary uses a courier service to ship a set of china to John. The china set gets broken during delivery. You are a lawyer. Advise Mary as to her liability.

Who will be responsible for fixing the problem?

… is the practice of safeguarding buyers of goods and services, and the public, against unfair practices in the marketplace

Consumer protection ensures that … make well-informed decisions about their choices and have access to effective redress mechanisms

Product … in Russia is regulated by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (the Civil Code) and the Law “On Consumer Protection” dated 7 February 1992 (the Consumer Protection Law)

The … Code and the Consumer Protection Law contain a number of provisions by which manufacturers may incur liability for loss or damage suffered by the consumers of their products, regardless of whether or not a direct contractual relationship exists

Russia belongs to …

It is not correct that legal doctrine is also recognized as a … of law

The basic feature of the Russian legislation regulating product liability is …

The product can be recalled from the market and from consumers by …

Products must be recalled when …

The … is an individual who has the intention of ordering or acquiring goods (works, services) or who orders, acquires or uses them exclusively for personal, family, household and other needs not relating to the pursuance of entrepreneurial activities

The … is an organization regardless of its organisational and legal form and also an individual entrepreneur who performs works or renders services to consumers under a cost contract

The … is an organization, regardless of its organisational and legal form, and also an individual entrepreneur who perform works or render services to the consumers on the chargeable agreement

The … is an organization, regardless of its organisational and legal form, and also an individual entrepreneur who sells goods to consumers under a sale contract

If an individual does not meet the required definition (e.g., an individual entrepreneur, who buys goods in the course of his business), he is not subject to the Consumer … Law

If a product fails to comply with its description or the regulations regarding production or labelling, it is considered to be ‘…’ for the purposes of this provision, thus subjecting the defendant to liability

A claim for damage caused to health, life or property may be brought against a … (either seller or executor) at the consumer’s discretion

The manufacturer (but not the seller) must compensate the … against losses suffered as a result of the product’s recall

Product liability in Russia is regulated by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (the Civil Code) and the Law ‘On Consumer Protection’ dated 7 February … (the Consumer Protection Law)

Establish the sequence of actions to make a return request:

You are a lawyer. Your client is Tatyana who bought boots in the shop 35 days ago. Yesterday she found out that her boots had a hole. She wants to have her money back as she states that it was a defective product.

Can she return goods after 14 days of the purchase? Does she need to have a receipt? Who should pay for the expertise?

… values are the highest values in a person’s value system

… values are the values that are often used

Basic and fundamental beliefs that guide or motivate attitudes or actions are …

It is not correct that … belong to instrumental values

A synonym for light-hearted and joyful is …

… is defined as freedom from inner conflict

… are supposed to be reflected in law as law should be based on what society sees as acceptable, fair, just

… values are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime

Milton Rokeach defines values as enduring beliefs that … are preferred

As a member of a profession dedicated to the service of clients, a … should be committed to the values

The principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour are …

Some scholars don’t distinguish between morals and …

A set of principles established by the founders of the organization to communicate its underlying moral values are called … standards

Values are practical based on the previous …, usually of several generations

Values are frequently regarded as “enduring …” that are stable and reflect the way the decisions are made.

Both terminal and … values affect people’s personal as well as professional lives alike

The ethical norms, values, and principles that guide a profession and the ethics of decisions made within the profession are called … ethics

A comprehensive legal term that describes the condition of being actually or potentially subject to a legal obligation is …

Match the given expressions with the definitions:

Arrange the needs according to Dr. Abraham Maslow starting from the basic ones:

Adultery is a voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and someone other than that person’s current spouse or partner. The Code of Hammurabi in Babylonia provided a punishment of death by drowning for adultery. In ancient Greece and in Roman law, an offending female spouse could be killed, but men were not severely punished. Study the following case: “The husband alleged that he saw his wife talking with another person on three occasions”.

What’s the difference between “ethical” and “legal”? Does the case deal with Russian/English criminal law?

Mercantile Law is …

The oldest known evidence of a law code is the …

Hammurabi’s Code contains …

The … considered the Twelve Tables, the first codification of Roman law, to be among their greatest achievements

It is not correct that … are a capacity

Civil claims are dealt with by … law

The elements to ensure legal capacities and liabilities include …

… secure guiding liberties and rights from the unreasonable intrusions by persons, organizations, or government

The Courts are to …

The system of rules which regulates society is …

A system of law that prescribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people inclusive of one’s self is … law

A system of law that represents rights and obligations in the sphere of business transactions is … law

The idea of written laws goes back to ancient … culture that prospered long before the Bible was written or the civilizations of the Greeks or Romans flowered

Another important function of … is the protection of the legitimate interests of citizens

The … of law comprises a number of principles of a formal and procedural character, addressing the way in which a community is governed

Mercantile law was created in … to deal with interactions between merchants, and continues to change over time due to legislative changes, case law, and long-term trends in usage

The … of the State Council fulfil their responsibilities independently.

The very first legislation known to history which affirmed the legal personhood of women is called the … of Hammurabi

Correlate the branch of law with regulated legal relationship:

Arrange the sources of law according to their importance (start with the most important one):

There are various fields of law. The types of law students choose to pursue often determine the firms they can apply to once they graduate. Here’s a case that can be attributed to one field of law: a golf player known for his speed and elusiveness murdered his wife.

Is it public law or private law? What is the area of law? Who will initiate the case?

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