Иностранный язык в профессиональной деятельности.

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Arrange the inventions chronologically:

According to the research company comScore Networks in 2019, the number of Internet users worldwide amounted to … people

…. technologies are one of the most basic through technologies in many documents and by many experts

… is the branch of ethics that focuses on the relationship between the creation, organization, dissemination, and use of information, and the ethical standards and moral codes governing human conduct in society

W. Martin emphasizes the idea that … is “a key element of the information society”

Match the abbreviations and transcripts:

According to current rates of growth in microelectronics, … of the world’s population will own a notebook-size computer with the capacity of today’s huge computers in roughly a decade

Vacuum tubes were discovered to have a number of flaws, for example … (choose 3 correct answers)

Match the terms and definitions:

Arrange the microelectronics in chronological order of their creation:

A piece of software that sits between the hardware and the user is an … system

The first operating system for the IBM 701 was created by …

… is a Linux distribution that provides a free and open-source community-supported computing platform

… is an open-source Linux distribution built on the architecture and infrastructure of Debian

… OS is an Android-based mobile operating system designed for Amazon’s phones

Correlate the generations of computers with their descriptions:

Transferred data might contain some important …

If you have an old system, the running process will be too … and inefficient

… is a person who identifies and analyzes business problems, and generates system requirements

… is the property of a system to handle a growing amount of work by adding resources to the system

… AE has been ported to leading high-availability CompactPCI platforms such as the CPX8000 from Motorola Computer Group

…. ensure the uninterrupted operation of vital systems, therefore, if a failure occurs or some illegal operations are performed, the OS must diagnose them, if necessary, block the program or isolate applications from each other, initiate recovery and protection of other programs or the system itself

Context switch time is the time interval from …

Match the units of data measurement with their characteristics:

Match the concepts with their characteristics:

The time interval determines how often each of the active processes … receive control under the given time slicing parameters

Inheritance … that a thread that blocks a resource inherits the priority of the thread it blocks

Some of the RTOS are distributed all over the world, the number of installations reaches hundreds of thousands, which is not bad for industrial systems, while others are designed for a specific microcontroller model and the number of copies sold … exceed two or three dozen

The disadvantage of the Self-Hosted RTOS is that most of the listed OS features are not used during the operation of an industrial computer and, therefore, … computer resources in vain

QNX … produced by QNX SoftWare Systems (USA) and is designed for high-critical applications that operate smoothly for years

The microkernel, process manager, device manager, file system manager, network manager belong to …

The interrupt latency is the time interval from …

Match the systems and their characteristics:

Match the operating systems and their release dates:

Match the operating systems and their characteristics:

Arrange the units of measurement of the data in ascending order:


It is important to ensure that the … data is accurate and relevant

… are important because they promote inter-service interoperability, meaning exchanging and making use of information, and interoperability between various component systems within the same service

Engineers still have problems … with the use of standards, and quite often with their misuse and misunderstanding

Data administrators, as well as policymakers, must keep a balance between two … aims

… is the person responsible for accomplishing all project objectives

The standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser is …

… is a person who creates the high-level design of a technical system

Establish a correspondence between data types and their description:

Match the notions with the situations that describe them:

Arrange the stages of the development of the internet in chronological order:

A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective, to create verb tense, or to create the passive voice. There are two types of participles: Present participle (ending -ing) and Past participle (usually ending -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n). Find the passage, where there are both Participle 1 and Participle 2.

A user cannot send direct instructions to the hardware … various activities

Because of the expense, the system’s productivity had to be increased … cost effectiveness

The introduction of time-sharing systems, in particular, has long been regarded as a watershed moment in the evolution of … systems

The …, which was introduced in the mid-1950s, made computers more reliable

Microsoft Windows eventually surpassed Mac OS … the world’s most popular personal computer operating system, with over 90 % market share

… created the first operating system for the IBM 701

The Apple Macintosh, a low-cost workstation that emerged from early Alto computer concepts, was released in …

The type of operating system that is not directly linked to the computer is the … operating system

Match the names of operating systems with their descriptions:

The description of the generation of computers is down below: “Computers of this generation appeared, when IBM introduced the System/360, a line of software-compatible computers with varying levels of capability and price. Because the machines shared the same architecture and instruction set, programs created for one could be run on the other”. Which generation of computers is described in the text?

The last decade’s technological advancements have played a … part in the formation of modern society

The development of integrated circuits and storage devices has continued at an exponential rate; each subsequent halving of component size now takes …

Nanoelectronics is the most … breakthrough in technical development

The early transistors were not only larger than the smallest tubes, but they were also more …

The transistor’s most significant advantage over the best vacuum tubes was that it consumed far …

Bell Telephone Laboratories’ John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley devised the bipolar transistor in …

Match the abbreviations and transcripts:

Match the parts of one sentence:

Match the parts of one sentence:

Match the highlighted words with their meaning in the sentence:

Arrange the stages in the history of transistors in chronological order:

The term “information…” refers to the social, economic, technological, and cultural changes that have occurred as a result of the rapid development and extensive use of information and communication technologies

Speaking about the development of the information society in Russia, I. N. Kurnosov writes that “the strategy for the formation of the information society in the transition period to a new system of property relations … take into account the special role and responsibility of the state”

The information society is established in those countries – … – in which a post-industrial society was formed in the 60s and 70s

The network can serve as a means of … propaganda materials of criminal organizations, recipes for the manufacture of explosives and poisonous substances, weapons, narcotic and psychotropic drugs, and methods for breaking electronic and other ciphers

One of the advantages of Russia is an advantageous geographical location between trade and information and telecommunication flows …

It … be noted that the problem of inequality in access to new information technologies is acute not only at the international level, but also at the micro level within each individual state

The term “developed post-industrial society” was introduced by …

The largest number of internet users currently in …

Match the sentence with the time it was written:

Put the number of Internet users worldwide from the largest to the smallest:

According to the research company comScore Networks in 2019, the number of Internet users worldwide amounted to 747 million people. The United States has the largest audience of Internet users – 153.4 million people, that is, almost every second American regularly goes online. In second place is China – in China today 86.8 million Internet users. Russia still occupies 13th place in terms of the number of people connected to the Network – 12.7 million people. However, Africa with 800 million people accounts for only 1 % of the total number of its users in the world, with 90 % of them living in South Africa. Identify the type of information society problem in the above case study.

… is the unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people

The slide rule in its basic form uses … logarithmic scales to allow fast multiplication and division of numbers

Burroughs converted to electronic desk … and in the mid to late 1970s their products dropped from the market

In 1936, Alan Turing invented a universal machine, which was later called …

The explosion in world population and the rise of globalised trade demanded even faster and more flexible tools for processing …

A general-purpose computing device called the analytical engine was developed in 1837 by …

The … is a small-scale special-purpose electronic digital machine for the solution of systems of linear algebraic equations and the first electronic computer incorporating vacuum tubes for digital computation

… are made for program logic and for computer memory

Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “What will the computers of the future (look) … like?”

Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “The microchip which (be) … a key component in the development of the personal computer”

Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “In 1944 Howard Aiken (develop) … Mark l that could perform calculations involving large numbers”

The description of a type of microcomputer is down below: “This type of microcomputer is just like a Mobile Device, but bigger than Smartphone and smaller then Notebook Computer. Just like Totally Smartphone feature like Touch screen display, power full Battery Backup and we can calling and receiving call and click pictures and anything”. Find out, what kind of microcomputer it is.

A company deals with tasks which take a long time to complete. Each worker has their duties that can be done offline. It’s essential for managers to estimate how long a task will take to be completed. The company uses a time-sharing system and all the users are able to finish their work in the system at the same time. However they noticed their gadgets to slow down fast. Also the workers notice the inconvenience while managing large workloads. What may be causing these problems? What decision should the company make?

· The company

wants to execute a lot of things at the same time, which is now impossible, so

each worker needs to use different languages to get the job done. In their case

the company should use Operating System

· Workers cannot

send direct instructions to the complier to execute various activities since it

is extremely difficult for the user to transform their request or instruction

into one language. In their case the company should use Input/Output System

· The company

uses a system that dedicates time to a certain activity and frequently switches

between the computers, which is overloading while completing long tasks. In

their case the company should use Batch System

A UNIX based operating system, was originally

developed in the mid-’90s. Its major offerings include scalability,

interoperability, data management and security, all of which are crucial for

businesses that need high-end operating software. In addition to the above, it

is also known for its web, database and Java-based services and its unlimited

capacity for helping in managing file system and databases is a big plus as

well. Which operating system is described:

· Solaris, which

is known as Oracle Solaris since 2010 when Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems

· Ubuntu, built

on the architecture and infrastructure of Debian

· Free BSD,

developed in the University of California by a large community

An information society is a society

where the usage, creation, distribution, manipulation and integration of

information is a significant activity. Which of the following statements is not

true about the Information Society?

· The

information society refers to the social, economic, technological, and cultural

changes that have occurred as a result of the rapid development and extensive

use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in modern countries,

particularly since World War II

· According to

Professor W. Martin attempted to formulate the main characteristics of the

information society according to the Social and Technological criteria

· The

information society has been formed decades ago, and therefore has been widely

studied from different angles; experts have reached the consensus regarding the

“Information Society” term

Artificial intelligence is becoming more

standardized, making it more accessible to a subject-matter expert who isn’t

necessarily a knowledge engineering expert. What standards are becoming more

common accessible and useful today?

· International

Organization for Standardization (ISO) Remote Data Access (RDA)

· American

National Admissions Institute (ANSI) Structured Join Language (SQL)

· Object

Management Group (OMG) – Common Object Broker Architecture (CORBA)

· Hypertext

Markup Language (HTML), Extensible Markup Language (XML)

· Web Ontology

Language (OWL), Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language, Win Interchange

Format (KIF)

Cryptography is the study of secure

communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of

a message to view its contents. What does a massive use of cryptography lead


· Among other

things, it leads to protection of accounting for payment by subscribers of a

digital communication channel

· It leads to

the dissemination of obscene materials that pose a threat to the moral

foundations of society, because people feel free when they can act anonymously,

distribute, buy and sell illegal materials with low chance of tracing them

· It leads to a

significant improvement of the identification of people by automatic machines

when crossing the borders of states

Data access can be difficult due to many

problems. Which of the following situations describes the documentation


· I need your

information now or I won't be able to use it. The data transfer process is too

slow, possibly unavailable. Because you have an older system, the migration

process is too slow and inefficient. I must have immediate access to your data;

otherwise your data will not help me

· The systems

are not connected to the same network. Your data is too inconvenient to

download. When the systems are not on the same network, downloading data can be

too inconvenient. The widespread use of the World Wide Web has reduced the

number of problems in this area, but separate networks will always exist

· Users are not

aware of specific data sets because your metadata is not published. When

metadata is not widely available, users may not even know what data sets they


In the 1960s and 1970s, microcomputers

and minicomputers became available to businesses and individuals. Thanks to

what technology did it become possible?

· This was made

possible by the creation of integrated circuit

· This was made

possible by the creation of macro chips

· This was made

possible by the creation of 4-bit processor

· This was made

possible by the creation of UNIVAC

Martin Timmerman formulated the

necessary requirements for an RTOS. Two of them are about priorities. Why the

combination of priorities is necessary?

· The RTS

software is a fixed set of pre-developed modules, and the choice of a program

for execution is carried out by interrupts (based on the current state of the

object) or in accordance with the scheduled work schedule

· It is the

opposite of “necessary”, as the combination of thread priorities can lead to

problems such as priority inversion and deadlock

· RTOS needs to

share resources. There are a lot of real-time process and system resources for

their operation must be available in advance

Most businesses don’t want to deal with

non-core tasks, which include the IT infrastructure. And if it has to pay for a

data center, it has to function at maximum efficiency. Crisis situations are

exacerbating resource shortages. Enterprises are cutting IT budgets, investing

less in long-term projects in general and in data centers in particular. It is

impossible to abandon IT altogether – it is equal to giving up doing business,

but phased financing and speed of commissioning come to the fore. What do

today’s IT managers face while having limited budgetary resources to expand

data centers?

· Task of

providing more services to more users, meeting ever-increasing performance

expectations, storing and managing exponentially increasing amounts of data,

better protecting the network, and ensuring system stability

· Mail to be

lost when using postal mail, and neither the sender nor the receiver would know

where the letter was or whether it had been delivered

· They face a

lot of challenges as “hundreds of billions of dollars are spent annually on

mobile phones, electronic devices, computers, and other microelectronic

products, spawning an entire industry that did not exist a decade ago”

Prior to the transistor’s discovery in

1947, the only way to execute amplification of a weak current in an electronic

circuit was to use a vacuum tube. What were the initial advantages transistors

demonstrated over small vacuum tubes?

· Transistors

had longer lifespan, were smaller and many of them could be placed on a single


· Transistors

were larger, while consuming far less power. They were more reliable

· Small vacuum

tubes’ production cost was much higher. Tubes’ material turned out to be

harmful for people’s skin

The first recognized use of the word

“computer” was from 1613.What did the “computer” use to mean before this word

started to refer to devices?

· It was used

for people who have a high level of intelligence

· It was used

for a device which helped ships to calculate their latitude at sea

· It was used

for people who performed repetitive mathematical operations

The OS-9 family of real-time operating

systems has been in use for over 20 years, with more than 5 million installed

copies. The range of OS-9 applications is wide – industrial automation,

instrumental and measuring systems, military and space systems. Why has the

OS-9 been so popular and widely used?

· Number of

supported hardware platforms and the quality of that support; various

development tools; advanced network facilities

· Unlimited

number of tasks; it's the first commercial real-time OS designed for building

highly reliable fault-tolerant systems

· Their protocol

is not based on any of the common network protocols such as IPX or NetBios and

has a number of qualities that make it unique; keeps specific hardware running


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